In the study, “Pervasive Learning and Technology Usage for Creativity Development in Education”, Shubina and Kulakli (2019), looked at pervasive learning, the benefits of creativity and the use of technology to foster and develop creativity in students by reviewing and analyzing relevant literature. Their focus question was: “How [a] technology-pervasive learning environment can enhance stimulation and development of creativity among students” ( p.95).
Shubina and Kulakli (2019), specifically asked three research questions connected to this larger focus question.
1. “How creativity is related to students academic and career achievements?”
2. “Does external and internal factors enhance or lessen creativity?”
3. “How technology and pervasive learning environment can enhance stimulation and development of creativity among students?”
( p. 95)
In the Literature Review, Shubina and Kulakli (2019) first discuss the literature connected to creativity and education. They note that the analysis of creativity can grouped into process-oriented models, product-oriented models, and what is referred to as the 5 C model. After discussing each in detail, Shubina and Kulakli (2019) conclude that, creativity is “important [for] developing the following skills”:
1. The ability to judge the usefulness of a new idea or solution
2. The ability to generate new ideas, skills or to improve or modify ideas to make them more useful.
3. The ability to solve problems in combination with critical thinking, communication and negotiation skills as well as evaluation skills and analytical thinking.
In addition, the authors conclude that “creativity at the little “c” is a good starting point for implementing creativity in education” ( p.97). They define little “c” as; “creativity, which occurs at [a] personal level as a unique, novel and meaningful interpretation of experiences, actions, and events by an individual” (p.96). Following the discussion of creativity in education, Shubina and Kulakli (2019), go on to discuss again the purpose of the study, the research questions, and then the methodology of their study (conducted by relevant literature review).
1st Focus: “Factors that Enhance Creativity Development”
Shubina and Kulakli (2019), discuss research connected to “motivation, self-determination, teaching approach and individual differences” (p.98). They first concluded that “educational institutions can enhance creativity development” by “applying policies, developing assessments and preparing teachers” ( p.98). Within this, they discuss the promotion of non-traditional teaching methods, collaboration, supports for teachers, etc. The second conclusion they make is that when teachers provide feedback to students that is “perceived as informative, constructive or useful” this “may have a positive impact on their intrinsic motivation to be creative”(p.99). The third and final conclusion they make is that, “positive mood, openness to experience, positive self-image and high self-efficacy are all related to greater creativity” (p.99)
2nd Focus: “Barriers to developing Creativity in the Classroom”
This focus is “divided into three groups: teacher’s attitude and practice, types and structure of assessments, and students’ beliefs regarding creativity.” (Shubina & Kulakli, 2019, p.99). What Shubina & Kulakli (2019) conclude is the following:
1. Traditional teaching methods provide few “opportunitie[s] for students to share “unusual ideas” and to discover insights.
2. The social role of the teacher and biases the teacher may have about creativity may suppress creativity (Teachers may think of only big C -creativity; connections to creative geniuses; they may be result focused and may miss/ignore the process)
3. External motivators primarily connected to social factors may suppress creativity e.g. social comparisons, competitions.
4. Students who doubt themselves and their abilities are less likely to exhibit creativity.
“Pervasive learning and technology usage for creative development”
Shubina and Kulakli (2019) discuss pervasive learning as defined by Pontefract. They state that this type of learning is characterized as “collaborative, inter-connected, continuous, communicative and social community-based” (p.100) . Shubina and Kulakli go on to discuss multiple types of technology available now that supports pervasive learning. Current and future technology supports pervasive learning as it, more than ever, allows for continuous, collaborative and social learning that extends beyond classroom walls.
“Studies on the relationship between pervasive learning, technology usage and creativity”
Shubina and Kulakli (2019) discuss the following key findings:
1. “Technology use may help to develop creative and critical thinking skills, problem-solving skills, and study skills as [an] additional benefit of its usage” ( p.102).
2. The combination of digital and non-digital sources may “enhance the learning process as students have to search, select, retrieve and share opinions or discoveries based on analysis of information from multiple sources” ( p.102).
3. Pervasive learning may lead to an increase in engagement and may increase intrinsic motivation.
4. “Intrinsic motivation is measured based on such constructs as interest, curiosity, attention, and creativity” ( p.103).
5. “Triggered curiosity” which can be brought about through the use of technology, “is supposed to enhance creativity development as well as to maintain interest and cognitive engagement” ( p.103).
6. Technology may help to increase the “intrinsic motivation of [the] learner through increasing student’s interest, attention and cognitive engagement” ( p.103). Based on the research provided, the use of technology may lead to further student successes.
They concluded this section with an overall comment regarding the benefits of technology, but also mentioned that it has the potential to become a distraction.
Shubina and Kulakli (2019), concluded that the research examined showed that there was a “strong relationship between technology use and creativity enhancement through reinforcing students’ intrinsic motivation, self- regulation, curiosity, self-efficacy and knowledge exchange” (p.104). In addition, technology further allows for pervasive learning. Based on the research findings the authors also note the importance of creativity and state that “creativity [should be moved] to one of the center points in educational programs” ( p.105).
Shubina, I., & Kulakli, A. (2019). Pervasive Learning and Technology Usage for Creativity Development in Education. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (IJET), 14 (01), 95–108. DOI: 10.3991/ijet.v14i01.90679.
I currently work in a blended program ( U-Connect) teaching grade 8-12 students ( English, Foods, Musical Theatre). Within my practice, I often think about the importance of preparing students for the future and, I believe that I have met this agenda in some areas. To further my practice, I would like to work on building more opportunities for students to develop “soft skills;” and, I would like to further incorporate technologies and create more authentic tasks. When teaching with Moodle created courses, I find that they have some strengths; however, they are still primarily based on the system of stand and deliver to; now produce a product. These courses also contain an incredible number of assignments, leading to what I believe is a surface skimming of many things and little time spent in deep understanding. It is my belief that creativity, an important 21st century skill, may be destroyed through the vast quantity of work students have to “get through” in some of these courses; and, it is highly unlikely to be fostered. One course that I teach that I have spent some time reflecting on over the past month is Foods and Nutrition 11/12 (FDN). This course has an effective practical component connected to learning how to cook but is lacking when it come to the exploration of emergent and important topics (food availability, food justice, GMO’S, nutrition, technology and food); these topics are being covered in a traditional teaching method. And so, I set out to find the perfect paper on integrating technology into Foods classes as a means to deepen engagement and build 21st century skills.
To find a paper that met my needs that was connected to (FDN), technology and 21st century learning was like looking for a needle in a hay stack. At that point, I chose to look for a paper that contained general ideas around technology, and 21st century skills. While searching, I continued to run across the word “creativity” and the need/importance of creativity. This paper resonated with me as it addressed creativity as well as my initial search for the benefits and uses of technology and 21st century leaning. I was intrigued by the concept of pervasive learning as it fits nicely with 21st century learning and with the blended program I work in. This paper included relevant details that support the benefits of including technology as well as the process of creativity and the link between technology and creativity. The discussions around fostering creativity and barriers to creativity gave me some clarity around steps I would need to take with my students and myself in order to build creativity through the use of technology. These are skills that will help to better prepare my student for the future. My hope is that including these components within my FDN class will give students the opportunity to collaborate, communicate, analyze, create, take risks and to problem-solve; these are vital 21st century skills.
Further specific details regarding the research problem(s)
1. The Teaching Platform: Moodle. Although it has some positive aspects to it; videos, forums, messaging, and options for some assignments, there are also negatives: a stand and deliver style of teaching (the online component), a lot of text and material for students to sift through, little choice (unless students take the initiative to talk to the teacher about other options), too many small assignments, and structures in place that make it challenging to engage with online learners. As such, the fully online learners are often disconnected and are less likely to successfully complete classes. Based on the paper discussed and the importance of technology and creativity, I wonder what changes could be made to provide a learning experience that is meeting the needs of the students and preparing them for the future. I wonder about the use of social media, blogs, podcasts and other tech tools that are connected to pervasive learning and to building skills like creativity.
2. In-class: Face To face Teaching. Although this teaching portion has a lot more positives than negatives; there are still aspects to it that I feel are not meeting the needs of the students. One that I spoke of earlier was again connected to Moodle as we deliver our course material this way. Although the concepts are connected to important and emerging topics (FDN11/12), they are taught in a manner reminiscent of traditional teaching. The practical part of the course is, well, practical and works well as students learn to work as a group to complete Foods labs. This portion builds skills like: collaboration, problem solving, creativity and practical life skills. Again, for the concept portion, I wonder what technology I could begin to include to further engage students and to provide the opportunity to further build soft skills like creativity. I wonder what skills/scaffolding students need to further develop their self-confidence so that they can engage in the creative process.
3. The Compartmentalization of Subject(s), particularly again in FDN. As mentioned earlier, I believe that the skills that we want students to learn should be taught across all subject areas. With regards to Foods, STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics), would be a natural fit for the emergent topics in Foods class.
The list below is of research questions I have been adding to over the last few weeks. I was surprised and pleased to see that many of them fall into the larger research question I have asked here. I have noted the connections/ideas for each below.
Blog List of Research Questions.
How do I create meaningful learning in an online (Moodle) environment? Based on the research I looked at the use of social media or other social constructs may be one way. I wonder how I might build these structures within the courses. I wonder about building community within these courses?
Can the use of animations create higher levels of student participation? Again, this could be connected to the use of social media and may even be used as a scaffolding tool. Students could start with animation and them once they have built skills and confidence, could move away from the animation.
Can the use of social media increase student participation and engagement in online and blended classes? This may be possible as the research demonstrated an increase in engagement with the use of technology. This use of social media, as pervasive technology, may also increase engagement. This engagement may lead to higher levels of participation and may lead to higher level of creativity.
Can teacher presence increase student engagement in online classes? Again, this could connect to the use of social media or other tools like pod casts or vodcasts.
How can I create a community with my online learners? Again, this is connected to social media and other tools that create opportunities to collaborate with others. I wonder what this might look like…
What is the best way to implement cross-curricular/inquiry projects/project based learning?
Bolden, B. (2013). Learner-created podcasts: Students’ stories with music. Music Educators Journal, 100(1), 75-80.
Technology is not incorporated as often into electives like music despite the benefits it may provide to students. This journal article does a good job of discussing, providing examples and detailing specifics around how to include podcast projects in music classes.
This article is very specifically geared towards one type of project. Teachers could find this useful if they were wanting to add tech to their music program as it contains specific implementation instructions. Practically, this project could be used across a multitude of electives and academics as another way for students to engage with and show their learning. This project may also be used in courses like ADST as it would be easily adapted and could be created by all students regardless of their musical background or aptitude.
Rutland, M., & Owen-Jackson, G. (2015). Food technology on the school curriculum in England: Is it a curriculum for the twenty-first century? International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 25(4), 467–482.
Overview: The article discusses the lack of food technology components covered in class with concerns that foods is falling behind as far as evolving and that students are not developing 21st century skills.
My Thoughts: Is not a very useful resource as far as looking at ideas to incorporate technology. Rather it talks more about different aspects of food technology such as food science, food sustainability, food industry and food availability, GMO’s, nutrition- these are components where technology could be used to engage students with some of these ideas. This may lead to the development of critical thinkers prepared for food challenges that the world/ country /community may face. It may be useful for teachers to review in order to evaluate their own program of teaching to ensure that these important topics are being covered. It could also be used to create guiding questions for students based around inquiry: create a question around sustainable food sources, create a question around food availability or GMO’s or Local Food Sources.
Shamburg, C., & Craighead, C. (2009). Shakespeare, Our Digital Native. The English Journal, 99(1), 74–77. Retrieved from JSTOR.
Overview: Discusses using technology to engage students with Shakespeare. Discusses remix: combining the traditional Shakespeare with current ideas (could be connected to music, video games, movies etc.). Discusses the benefits and outlines some sample projects. Discusses the idea of a participatory culture with reference to social media. The big idea is that if kids participate, they engage.
My Thoughts: This is a great resource for Music, English, Drama, Art and ADST teachers especially as teachers can address one area specifically or can pull in multiple components.
Surgenor, D., McMahon‐Beattie, U. S. M., Burns, A., & Hollywood, L. E. (2016). Promoting Creativity in the Kitchen: Digital Lessons from the Learning Environment. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 50(3), 186–192.
Overview: Discusses the use of podcasts as a means to introduce students to new recipes/ ingredients etc. so that they are prepared when they come to class and are able to build more skills.
My Thoughts: This reminds me of a flipped classroom idea. This could be used in conjunction with the idea of creating podcasts as it could be a combination of both. Providing students with the ideas and the know-how for specific cooking assignments ahead of time would allow for students to come to class better prepared thereby furthering their skills. It may also allow them to showcase certain skills. I think the ideas of using this as a flipped classroom for labs would be successful. I also think that using the idea of podcasts, vodcasts etc. would be a good way to examine some of the other aspects of the FDN curriculum.
A Few other Interesting Resources
Goedhart, N. S., Westrhenen, N. B., Moser, C., & Zweekhorst, M. B. M. (2019). The flipped classroom: Supporting a diverse group of students in their learning. Learning Environments Research, 22(2), 297–310.
Henriksen, D., Henderson, M., Creely, E., & Ceretkova, S. (2018). Creativity and Technology in Education: An International Perspective. Technology, Knowledge and Learning, 23(3),
Kaufman, K. J. (2013). 21 Ways to 21st Century Skills: Why Students Need Them and Ideas for Practical Implementation. Kappa Delta Pi Record, 49(2), 78–83. https://doi.org/10.1080/00228958.2013.786594
Mattar, J. (2018). Constructivism and connectivism in education technology: Active, situated, authentic, experiential, and anchored learning. RIED: Revista Iberoamericana de Educación a Distancia, 21(2), 201–217.
Muls, J., Triquet, K., Vlieghe, J., De Backer, F., Zhu, C., & Lombaerts, K. (2019). Facebook group dynamics: An ethnographic study of the teaching and learning potential for secondary school teachers. Learning, Media and Technology, 44(2), 162–179.
Spector, J. M. (2016). Thinking About Educational Technology and Creativity. Educational Technology, 56(6), 5–8. Retrieved from JSTOR.
· TEDx Talk by Jeff Hopkins